Schemes of work:  Year 7    Year  8    Year 9   Year 10   Year 11

Junior History Syllabus (Years 7-9)

Junior 1 – praeparatio evangelica (Sixième) (5 périodes de 40 minutes)

1. Prehistory.

What makes man unique among the animals? Physiognomy and transcendence, forming his environment, tools and cave-art.
Palaeolithic – hunter-gatherers, nomadism.
Neolithic – agricultural revolution, domestication of animals, settlement, cities.
Sumer – city states, invention of cuneiform writing and the wheel, religion and ziggurats, conflicts between nomads and farmers, conquest by Sargon of Akkad.

2. Egypt.

Two kingdoms united by Menes, organisation of Egyptian society and the year, religion and afterlife, the pyramids, Akhenaten and monotheism.
Old Kingdom (2670-2198BC)
Middle Kingdom (1938-1759BC)
New Kingdom (1539-1100BC)
Late Period (1100-332BC)

3. The Hebrews.

Bible as historical record, nomadism and settlement in the Bible, Moses and the Exodus.
The Judges – conquest of Canaan, the Twelve Tribes, the Judges.
The Kingdom – Saul, David, Solomon, division of the United Kingdom.
Conquest and Exile.
The Prophets.
The Maccabees.

4. Greece.

Minoans – religion, palaces, legend of the Minotaur, relation of history and myth, c.1450BC eruption of Thera.
Mycenaeans – warfare and social organisation, ‘the Heroic Age,’ the Trojan War (the Iliad), 1250BC fall of Troy.
The Dark Age (c.100-800BC) – what was it and why did it happen? Famine, cultural regress, loss of writing, declining standards of art, emergence of the Dorians.
The Archaic Period (c.800-500BC) – Greek alphabet, word roots, Homer, emigration and colonies, the Odyssey.
The Classical Period (c.500-338BC) – emergence of Democracy at Athens, what distinguishes democracy from other forms of government, Draco and Solon, comparison of Athens and Sparta and achievements of each, the Persian Wars (major battles), the Peloponnesian War, warfare by land and sea, achievements in art and architecture, religion, gods, Olympic Games, Greek thinkers, Plato and Aristotle, Diogenes, Archimedes, Miletus, Pythagoras, Hippocrates.
The Hellenistic Period (c.338-146BC) – Alexander the Great, personality, conquests (major battles), legacy.

5. Rome.

Origins – The Aeneid, the legend of Romulus and Remus, position of Rome (benefits of), different peoples in Italy, early kings.
The Republic (510-44BC) – foundation (expulsion of Tarquins), political and social organisation of Republic, ‘golden age’ of morals, Horatius at the bridge, domination of Latin League and Italy (nature of Roman expansion, diplomacy etc.), Punic Wars, social problems, land reform, the Gracchi, Marius and Sulla (dictators), triumvirate, Julius Caesar.
The Empire (44BC-312AD) – rise of Octavian, establishment of Empire, early emperors, conquest of Britain, the army and engineering, the city of Rome in itself and as model for Roman urbanisation, domestic and daily life. Declining standards, searching for renewal, Diocletian and political attempts, mystery cults and religious attempts, the rise of Constantine up to the battle of the Milvian bridge.

6. The beginnings of Christianity.

The life of Christ
The Apostolic Age – emergence of the scriptural canon.
The Age of Martyrs – double challenge of persecution and heresy.
The Triumph of the Cross – conversion of Constantine, fusion of classical and Christian culture and development of the Christian empire.

7. Key Themes in Geography

Students should be able to identify the position of key geographical elements:

– regions of ancient civilisation, in the first place, the river valleys: Mesopotamia and the fertile crescent, Egypt, the Indus valley, the Yellow River; in addition, Crete and Greece, Rome and Italy, Carthage.

– rivers: Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, Rhine and Danube. 

– deserts: Sahara, Arabian.

– mountains: Zagros, Taurus, Atlas, Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathian, Caucasus.

– seas and oceans: Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Atlantic Ocean.

Students should understand how key geographical features such as rivers, seas and mountains have served both to divide and unite populations. 

Junior 2 – invasion and recovery (Cinquième) (5 périodes de 40 minutes)

1. The barbarian invasions of the 5th century.

Who were the ‘barbarians’? – Subjectivity and objectivity of term ‘barbarian,’ population movements, different German tribes, where they settled, how they were received, different attitudes to the Romano-Christian heritage. The Huns.

2. The rise of Islam.

Life of Mohammed.
Core beliefs of Islam.
Early expansion – explanation of success.
Emergence of Islamic civilisation – Umayyads, Abbasids.
Europe under threat – failure to capture Gaul and Constantinople in 8th century.

3. Byzantine and Carolingian Empires.

The Christian Church, the monks, Church and state in East and West.

4. Vikings, Magyars and Saracens.

Reasons for Norse movement, Viking way of life, invasions of England, Alfred the Great.
Development of feudal relations.

5. The High Middle Ages.

The Norman Conquest.
Medieval society, kings, lords, peasants.
The Spanish Reconquest.
The Crusades.
Architecture – Romanesque, Gothic, Perpendicular churches and cathedrals, castles.
Religious reformations, different religious orders and movements.
Schisms and heresies.
The Hundred Years War in the West, the Fall of Constantinople in the East.

6. The Renaissance.

Reasons for, humanism, artistic developments, sacred or profane?

7. Key Themes in Geography

In addition to the material covered in Junior 1, students should be able to locate the position of key geographical elements:

– Cultures studied: Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic Empires, Norse homeland, movement of Huns.

– Modern European and Mediterranean countries and capitals.

– Rivers: Danube, Dnieper, Ebro, Elbe, Guadalquivir, Loire, Oder, Po, Rhine, Rhone, Seine, Tagus, Thames, Vistula, Volga.

– Mountains: Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Caucasus, Jura, Massif Central, Pyrenees, Scandinavian, Urals, Vosges.

– Seas and Oceans: Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Aral Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, English Channel, Ionian Sea, Irish Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea.

Students should be able to identify differences in lifestyle between nomadic pastoralism and settled agriculturalism.


Junior 3 – disquiet and mastery (quatrième: 5 bloc a week)

1. The Reformation.

Trent and the Catholic Reformation.
Valois-Habsburg conflict, encirclement of France.

2. The Age of Discovery.

Voyages of discovery.
Aztecs and Incas.
Spanish Empire in Americas.
Catholic Missions and martyrs.

3. The Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment.

The centralisation of power – strong monarchies in England, France and Spain.
Wars of Religion, raison d’État in France.
Henry VI, Louis XIII and Richelieu, Louis XIV.
The Stuarts in England, the English Civil War.
The Enlightenment.
Enlightened Despotism, Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria.

4. The Age of Revolution.

The Revolution of 1789 in France, the revolutionary wars, the Terror and the Convention, the Directory, the Consulate, Napoleon.

5. The Age of Empire.

The rise of the British Empire, North America, India, the scramble for Africa.

6. Towards the First World War.

The Industrial Revolution in Britain, European revolutions, unification of Italy, unification of Germany.

7. Key Themes in Geography

In addition to the material covered in Junior 1 and 2, students should be able to locate the position of key geographical elements:

– Cultures and regions studied: basic religio-cultural division of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin into Catholic, Protestant, ‘Orthodox,’ and Moslem; Aztec and Inca Empires; the Spanish Empire in 1598; the British and French Empires in 1914.

– Modern states of North and South America, and of Africa.

– Rivers: Amazon, Congo, Mississippi, Niger, Nile, Plate, Zambezi. 

– Mountains: Andes, Appalachian, Himalayas, Rockies.

– Oceans: Arctic, Indian, Pacific, North Atlantic, South Atlantic.

Sudents should be able to identify the differences in lifestyle between town and country, and between ‘first world’ and ‘third world’ cultures. 


Senior History (Years 10 and 11)



The 20th century: International Relations since 1919



Based on Cambridge IGCSE Modern History, with emphasis in Year 10 on material common to the IGCSE and ‘Brevet’ syllabuses.

IGCSE syllabus: http://www.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/middlesec/igcse/subject?assdef_id=864

Main textbook: http://www.cambridge.org/gb/education/secondary/subject/project/pricing/isbn/item1175467/Cambridge-IGCSE-Twentieth-Century-History-Cambridge-IGCSE-Twentieth-Century-History/?site_locale=en_GB&currentProject=405312

Syllabus:  1 Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair? Specified Content

 • The League of Nations:

o strengths and weaknesses in its structure and organisation
o successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s
o the impact of the World Depression on the work of the League after 1929
o the failures of the League in the 1930s, including Manchuria and Abyssinia.


3 Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?


Focus Points


• What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919–23?
• What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s?
• How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
• Was the policy of appeasement justified?
• How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?

• Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?

Specified Content


• The collapse of international order in the 1930s
• The increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan
• Hitler’s foreign policy to 1939:
o the Saar
o remilitarisation of the Rhineland

o involvement in the Spanish Civil War

o Anschluss with Austria

o appeasement

o crises over Czechoslovakia and Poland

o the outbreak of war.

4 Who was to blame for the Cold War?


Focus Points



• Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
• How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
• How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
• What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
• Who was the more to blame for starting the Cold War: the USA or the USSR?


Specified Content


• The origins of the Cold War:
o the 1945 summit conferences and the breakdown of the USA-USSR alliance in 1945–6
o Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe to 1948, and American reactions to it
o the occupation of Germany and the Berlin Blockade.


5 How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism?


Focus Points


This Key Question will be explored through case studies of the following:
• America and events in Cuba, 1959–62
• American involvement in Vietnam.


Specified Content


• events of the Cold War:
o case studies of:
o American reactions to the Cuban revolution, including the missile crisis and its aftermath
o American involvement in the Vietnam War.


6 How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe,


Focus Points


• Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and how
did the USSR react to this opposition?
• How similar were events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
• Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
• What was the significance of ‘Solidarity’ in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern


• How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern


Specified Content


• Soviet power in Eastern Europe:
o resistance to Soviet power in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968)
o the Berlin Wall
o ‘Solidarity’ in Poland
o Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Empire.



7 How effective has the United Nations Organisation been?


Focus Points


• What are the functions of the UNO?
• How far has the organisation of the UNO hindered its effectiveness?
• Case studies of the UNO in action: the Korean War and the Congo.


Specified Content


• The aims of the UNO, the organisation of the UNO, its agencies and their work
• The implications of the growth of membership: admission of developing nations and China
• Case studies of the work of the UNO in Korea (1950–3) and in the Congo (1960–3).






Focus Points


• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
• Could the treaties be justified at the time?


Specified Content


• The peace treaties of 1919–23:
o the roles of individuals such as Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George in the peacemaking process
o the impact of the treaties on the defeated countries
o contemporary opinions about the treaties.


2 To what extent was the League of Nations a success?


Focus Points


• How successful was the League in the 1920s?
• How far did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable?
• How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
• How successful was the League in the 1930s?
The two World Wars, the birth of modern Europe and its institutions, the United Nations, the Cold War.



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